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Digestion

In this activity, you will investigate how many organs work together to digest food inside the human body.  These organs are collectively known as the digestive system.

1.  Use the links below to read about the functions of the organs of the digestive system.  Copy and fill in the table below.


To take a virtual tour of the digestive system, go to http://medtropolis.com/VBody.asp

Then click on "English" and "Digestive Tract" to examine the organs.

Here are many other useful links:

http://hopkins-gi.nts.jhu.edu/images/shared/home/database/digestiveSystem.html

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/digestive-system/DG00021

http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/digestive.html

http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/body/digest_noSW.html

http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/digestive/regions/

Organ

Function in Digestion

mouth

 

esophagus 

 

stomach

 

pancreas

 

liver

 

small intestine

 

large intestine (colon)

 

rectum

 

 

2.  What is the difference between chemical and mechanical digestion

Info at http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/digestive/

3.  What substances are secreted by the epithelial cells of the stomach?  Why are these gastric secretions important?

4.  Compare the structure of a human's stomach, a bird's stomach, and a ruminant's stomach.  How do these stomachs differ?

Info at http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/stomach/secretion.html

and http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu

Access the following site:   www.biologyinmotion.com

Click on "Fat Digestion and Bile".  Based on the activity, answer the next two questions.


5.  What is emulsification?

6.  Why is emulsification an important step in fat digestion?

7.  Is emulsification an example of chemical or physical digestion?  You can find out be reading "Production of Digestive Juices" and "Fats" on this page.


8.  What are enzymes?    Find out here:  http://www.lew-port.com/10712041113402793/lib/10712041113402793/animations/Enzyme%20activity.html

9.  How do enzymes help to digest food?

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002353.htm

http://science.howstuffworks.com/cell2.htm

http://www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/pharm/antibiot/readings/enzyme.htm

http://www.fbhc.org/Patients/Modules/newdiges.cfm     Scroll down to "Production of Digestive Juices".

 10.  Explain how carbohydrates, proteins and fats are digested.  Find out here:  http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/#food

11.  Explain how digestion is controlled by the endocrine and nervous systems.  (Scroll down to find out.)

Info at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/#3

Now read about a disease of the digestive system. Use the following links to identify and investigate a digestive disease and answer the following questions:

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/digestivesystem.html

http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=2&tax_subject=278&topic_id=1383


12.  What digestive disease did you select?

13.  What are the symptoms of the disease?

14.  What causes the disease?

15.  How can the disease be treated?


You can compare the digestive systems of carnivores, herbivores and omnivores here:  www.cnsweb.org/digestvertebrates/WWWEdStevensCDAnatomy.html

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